From Brookings: Depending on their particular situation, utilities might benefit from exploring new partnerships, including public-public and public-private partnerships..These collaborations aim to bring together different public and private entities—around project design, construction, and operation—to spread financial risk, gain technical expertise, generate cost savings, and jumpstart infrastructure investment. For example, in Rialto, Calif., a 30-year, $172 million agreement between the city and a consortium of private partners has helped improve maintenance and address other capital backlogs.

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